Gated communities: perspectives on privatized spaces: review essay. Files Durington Review Gated Communities. Collections Durington, Matthew. Metadata Show full item record. Citation of Original Publication Durington, M. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 35 1 , — The chapters in this book investigate issues and communities such as:. These illustrative chapters enable the reader to understand more about the social and economic forces that have lead to gating, the ways in which gated communities are managed, and their wider effects on both residents and those living outside the gates.
Gated Communities : International Perspectives. Rowland Atkinson , Sarah Blandy. The chapters in this book investigate issues and communities such as: gated communities in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina planning responses to gated communities in Canada who segregates whom? They are commonly referred to as "complexes" but also broadly classified as "security villages" large-scale privately developed areas or "enclosed neighborhoods.
In part, property developers have adopted this response to counter squatting , which local residents fear due to associated crime, and which often results in a protracted eviction process. In Saudi Arabia, gated communities have existed since the discovery of oil, mainly to accommodate families from Europe or North America. After threat levels have increased since the late s against foreigners in general and U.
Marksmen and Saudi Arabian National Guard armored vehicles appeared in certain times, markedly after recent terrorist attacks in areas near-by, targeting people from European or North American countries. Proponents of gated communities and to a lesser degree, of cul-de-sac maintain that the reduction or exclusion of people who would be only passing through, or more generally, of all non-local people, makes any "stranger" much more recognisable in the closed local environment, and thus reduces crime danger.
Since only a very small proportion of all non-local people passing through the area are potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than decrease safety by having more people around whose presence could deter criminal behaviour or who could provide assistance during an incident. Another criticism is that gated communities offer a false sense of security.
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Some studies indicate that safety in gated communities may be more illusion than reality and that gated communities in suburban areas of the United States have no less crime than similar non-gated neighborhoods. A commentary in The New York Times specifically blames the gated communities for the shooting death of Trayvon Martin as the columnist states that "gated communities churn a vicious cycle by attracting like-minded residents who seek shelter from outsiders and whose physical seclusion then worsens paranoid groupthink against outsiders.
In an influential paper, Vanessa Watson includes gated communities within a class of "African urban fantasies": attempts to remake African cities in the vein of Dubai or Singapore. In Watson's analysis, this kind of urban planning prizes exclusionary and self-contained spaces that limit opportunities for interaction between different classes, while worsening marginalization of the urban poor. The closed cities of Russia are different from the gated communities.
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A limited number of gated communities have long been established for foreigners in various regions of the world:. Since Buenos Aires has been traditionally regarded as a socially integrated city, gated communities have been the subject of research by sociologists.
Gated communities are an important way through middle and upper-class people cope with the high levels of violent criminal activity in Greater Buenos Aires. Although gated communities have been rare in Australia, since the s, a few have been built.
4weshare.org/modules/little/beach-master-beach-bums-anthology-vol-1-book.php Other similar projects are being built in the area. Many Australian gated communities are built within private golf courses. In the ACT, the only example is Uriarra Village, based around community horse paddocks and dwellings jointly managed through strata title. Each consists of generously spaced detached houses with very little to separate front gardens. Neighbourhoods with "physical" or explicit gating with security checkpoints and patrols are extremely rare, being absent in even some of Canada's richest neighbourhoods such as Bridle Path, Toronto.
Furthermore, municipal planning laws in many Canadian provinces ban locked gates on public roads as a public health issue since they deny emergency vehicles quick access. A noted exception in Canada is Arbutus Ridge , an age-restricted community constructed between and on the southeastern coast of Vancouver Island. More common in most Canadian neighbourhoods, especially the largest cities, is an implicit or symbolic gating which effectively partitions the private infrastructure and amenities of these communities from their surrounding neighbourhoods.
A classic example of this is the affluent Montreal suburb of Mount Royal , which has a long fence running along its side of L'Acadie Boulevard that for all intents and purposes separates the community from the more working-class neighbourhood of Park Extension. In China, some of these compounds, like most other gated communities around the world, target the rich. Also many foreigners live in gated communities in Beijing.
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Often foreign companies choose the locations where their foreign employees will live, and in most cases they pay the rent and associated costs e. Similar communities exist in Shanghai, another major Chinese city. Shanghai Links, an exclusive expatriate community enclosing a golf course and the Shanghai American School, is an example. Other gated communities in China such as those in the Daxing District of Beijing enclose the homes of rural migrants. The system is controversial as it segregates migrants and the poor, with some claiming its true purpose is to keep track of migrants, but it is scheduled for implementation in Changping District also.
Guayaquil and Quito , Ecuador have many gated communities. They are home mostly for the wealthiest people, but there is a trend, specially in Guayaquil, of houses in gated communities with moderate prices as well. In India , there are many gated neighborhoods also called "colonies" in New Delhi in big cities where most of the upper middle-class and upper-class people live. New Delhi, Mumbai , Chennai , Bangalore and the like all have gated communities. Sometimes these communities are separated not just by wealth but also by ethnicity.
Members of a particular ethnicity tend to feel more comfortable living among their own owing to reasons related to common festivals, language, and cuisine. Examples of this are common in New Delhi where there is a strong Punjabi community. Many gated neighborhoods are predominantly Punjabi and there have been cases of discrimination against members of other ethnic backgrounds living in those communities. Now gated communities are being built in Chennai, Hyderabad , Bangalore by a lot of real estate developers. As in neighboring countries, the target for these housing societies seem to be upper-middle or upper class citizens.
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Caste and religious discrimination is prevalent in the real estate industry. Several people have been denied homes based on their caste or religion regardless of this factor non-residential Indians are very interested in gated housing. In Indonesia, some gated communities are luxurious with lots of up to square metres sq ft , and some are very affordable with lots ranging from 40 to square metres.
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From , most of the new residential area build by private developer are gated community. Gated communities in Indonesia still allow outsiders to use some of the facilities inside the community because there is a regulation that the social facilities in the residential development should be handed to the local government to be used by the public. The gated community is a concept that emerged in response to the rise of safety and security issues, and offers more advantages in terms of a calm environment and enhanced safety that is ideal for family development.
Gated communities in Mexico are a result of the huge income gap existing in the country. Gated communities can be found in virtually every medium and large sized city in Mexico with the largest found in major cities, such as Monterrey , Mexico City or Guadalajara. Luxury or "status" gated communities are very popular with middle to high income residents in Mexico. Gated luxury communities in Mexico are considerably cheaper than in countries such as the United States while retaining houses of similar size and quality due to the commonness of the communities and the lower cost to build them and are priced lower to attract middle class residents.
Many gated communities in Mexico have fully independent and self-contained infrastructure, such as schools, water and power facilities, security and fire forces, and medical facilities.