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Authorities, however, insist atheist beliefs are not illegal -- as long as they're not aired in public. Two decades after the fall of dictator Suharto -- who kept the country running along secular lines -- conservative Islam has exploded into Indonesia's public life in lockstep with the rise of hardliners and religiously motivated violence.
The country has grappled with Islamist militancy for years, including the Bali bombing that killed more than in Indonesia's worst-ever terror attack. More attacks followed and this year, 13 people were killed in a wave of suicide bombings claimed by the Islamic State group that targeted Christian congregations.
Buddhist temples have also been attacked, while this year an angry mob rampaged through a small community of the Ahmadiyya Islamic minority on the island of Lombok, destroying homes and forcing dozens of members to flee. Atheists interviewed by AFP said they worried that hardliners, encouraged by populist politicians, could turn their attention to them next. Many apostates -- particularly those from conservative Muslim backgrounds -- assume two identities, like Atmowijoyo. While small groups hold regular meetings in large cities, most have sought out like-minded individuals online.
The "You Ask, Atheists Answer" open forum on Facebook has nearly 60, members, and there are more like it online. Karina, based in Singapore, said when she found a private Facebook page for fellow atheists in her native Indonesia she finally felt she was "not alone". Atheists interviewed by AFP said they worried about doxxing -- publishing private information to identify users -- by radical Islamist cyber groups, which regularly make death threats.
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Secular and atheist bloggers have been killed in Bangladesh, atheists have been threatened by government officials in Malaysia and jailed in Egypt. Indonesia, by contrast, is often praised for its moderate, inclusive brand of Islam -- but that is something many atheists say is no longer a reality. The practice of such ancient beliefs interferes profoundly with women's abilities to exercise their human rights". Feminist Julie Bindel argues that religions encourage the domination of men over women and that Islam promotes the submission of women to their husbands and encourages practices such as child marriage.
She wrote that religion "promotes inequality between men and women", that Islam's message for a woman includes that "she will be subservient to her husband and devote her life to pleasing him" and that "Islam's obsession with virginity and childbirth has led to gender segregation and early marriage. Islamic laws have been criticized by human rights organizations for exposing women to mistreatment and violence, preventing women from reporting rape and contributing to the discrimination of women.
According to Phyllis Chesler , Islam is connected to violence against women, especially in the form of honor killings. She rejects the argument that honor killings are not related to Islam and claims that while fundamentalists of all religions place restrictions on women, in Islam not only are these restrictions harsher, but Islam also reacts more violently when these rules are broken. Christianity has been criticized for painting women as sinful, untrustful, deceiving and desiring to seduce and incite men into sexual sin. Rogers argues that Christianity is misogynistic and that the "dread of female seduction " can be found in St.
Paul's epistles. Ruthven argues that the "legacy of Christian misogyny was consolidated by the so-called 'Fathers' of the Church, like Tertullian , who thought a woman was not only 'the gateway of the devil' but also 'a temple built over a sewer'". Christian religious figures have been involved in the Middle Ages and early modern period witch trials , which were generally used to punish assertive or independent women such as midwives since witchcraft was often not in evidence,  or activists.
Kosher slaughter has historically attracted criticism from non-Jews as allegedly being inhumane and unsanitary,  in part as an antisemitic canard that eating ritually slaughtered meat caused degeneration  and in part out of economic motivation to remove Jews from the meat industry.
In , animal advocates campaigning against kosher slaughter in Aberdeen attempted to link cruelty with Jewish religious practice. While supporters of kosher slaughter counter that Judaism requires the practice precisely because it is considered humane,  Research conducted by Temple Grandin and Joe M. Regenstein in concluded that—practiced correctly with proper restraint systems—kosher slaughter results in little pain and suffering and notes that behavioral reactions to the incision made during kosher slaughter are less than those to noises such as clanging or hissing, inversion or pressure during restraint.
Other forms of ritual slaughter , such as Islamic ritual slaughter , have also come under controversy.
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According to the Farm Animal Welfare Committee , halal and kosher practices should be banned because when animals are not stunned before death, they suffer needless pain for up to 2 minutes despite some Muslims and Jews arguing that loss of blood from slash to the throat renders the animals unconscious relatively quickly. Not all religions are hostile to homosexuality.
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Both Reform Judaism and the Unitarian Universalist Association have advocated for equal rights for gay and lesbian people since the s. Many Christians have made efforts toward establishing racial equality, contributing to the civil rights movement. The term " dominionism " is often used to describe a political movement among fundamentalist Christians.
Critics view dominionism as an attempt to improperly impose Christianity as the national faith of the United States. It emerged in the late s inspired by the book, film and lecture series "Whatever Happened to the Human Race? Schaeffer and C. Everett Koop. Whitehead and although they represent different theological and political ideas, dominionists believe they have a Christian duty to take "control of a sinful secular society", either by putting fundamentalist Christians in office, or by introducing biblical law into the secular sphere.
In the early s, sociologist Sara Diamond   and journalist Frederick Clarkson   defined "dominionism" as a movement that while including dominion theology and Christian reconstructionism as subsets, it is much broader in scope, extending to much of the Christian right. There are few full adherents to reconstructionism are limited to conservative Christians. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Criticism of the ideas, validity, concept or the practice of religion.
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Anti-clericalism Antireligion Antitheism. Humanistic Metaphysical Methodological Religious. Secularist organizations. Related topics. By religion. By religious figure. By text. Religious violence. Main articles: Definition of religion and Religion. See also: Faith and rationality. Main articles: Theories of religions and Development of religion. See also: Exorcism and Faith healing. Main article: Jerusalem syndrome. Main articles: Honor killings and stoning. Main articles: Religious war , Religious terrorism , and Religious violence.
See also: Human sacrifice , Morality and religion , and Religious intolerance. See also: Indoctrination , Mind control , Religion and children , and Child marriage. Main article: Homosexuality and religion. See also: Gender and religion , Christianity and domestic violence , Islam and domestic violence , and Misogyny.
chinausinvest.org/modules/espion/enlever-localisation-photo-iphone-6-plus.html Main article: Dominionism. See also: Dominion theology and Christian reconstructionism. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Ideology of Religious Studies. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Retrieved 30 Apr Hate Speech and Freedom of Speech in Australia. Federation Press. In some belief systems, religious leaders and believers maintain the right to both emphasise the benefits of their own religion and criticise other religions; that is, they make their own claims and deny the truth claims of others. Michael Herz; Peter Molnar 9 April Cambridge University Press. Quilliam Foundation. Archived from the original PDF on Due to the nature of religious belief, one person's faith often implies that another's is wrong and perhaps even offensive, constituting blasphemy.
Yale University Press. The Territories of Science and Religion.